The DfE has published qualitative research which explored how special and alternative provision schools in England currently use reasonable force, including physical restraint and other restrictive practices, and to learn what these schools believe works to effectively minimise the need to use such methods. Findings were drawn from analysis of interviews with school leaders and staff from 45 special and alternative provision schools, plus additional evidence gathered from site visits to 4 of these schools. The report is at Use of reasonable force in AP and special schools – GOV.UK ( published 21st March 24.